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Couscous with veal - Sunday lunch

Couscous with veal - Sunday lunch


I cut the meat into smaller pieces.

I cut the onion into small pieces, myrrh slices.

In a bowl I put a little oil and hardened the onion with the carrots until the onion became glassy.

I then put a little paprika and the meat to fry a little.

I put salt, bay leaves and hot pepper flakes.

I put water in, more than just covering it.

The meat will have to boil quite a bit, so more water will be needed.

It is good to put enough water at the beginning, but if it is not enough, it is not a tragedy, complete it with hot water.

When the meat was almost cooked, I added the pepper, tarragon and tomato paste.

Before putting out the fire I put the cream and the green parsley.

For the pasta, I put a little oil in a pan and scraped the carrot.

I hardened it a little, I added salt, then I put the pasta and I fried them together with the carrot.

I covered with water and let it boil until all the liquid was gone.

It is preferable to add more water if necessary than to leave too much liquid.

I stopped the fire and covered it with a lid.

I served it with red cabbage salad.


UICA MIHAI

Thanks Uica!
I was doing something similar without realizing how close I was to Babic.
If I let them out on the ground, you might wake up at the door with the representatives of the Chicago Rats Union to thank you, they're still laughing)
I'll tie them to the beam in the garage, the air is circulating, it's cold.

Hello ! Nice blog, signed by the intestinal seller from Bucharest with whom you spoke three days ago.

Mr. Uica Mihai, I have all the respect for you but now I can't forgive you. Babicul de Buzau is, as you partly posted it, posted for the first time by me in the culinary, tasty and Costachel, from where, I think, you lined up. I am not asking for copyright, but just to acknowledge that the recipe belongs to me and it was also published in my book HISTORIES WITH MYROSES AND CRUST, 2008 edition.
Regards,
Marian Radulescu

Mr. Marian Rădulescu, I admit that you published a babic recipe on the Costăchel.ro website and I congratulate you for your performance in order to keep the Romanian culinary traditions alive. But I only read this recipe now and I didn't know about it until now. By the way, there are a lot of babic recipes on the internet. Our recipes can't help but look like them because they describe a traditional product. I read your material, after I received the message, I assure you that I have no intention of copying you, denigrating you or stealing your work. I asked for details and details about Babic from the gentleman who sells the mats for this product. I also took the photo from him. I wanted to babble this year, but the mats became so expensive that I gave up. Last year I didn't have good conditions to keep the babic and it tasted moldy, two years ago I didn't, three years ago I weighed over 20 kilograms and it turned out very good. I apologize if I offended you with anything, it doesn't stay in my character and I congratulate you once again. I searched for you on Facebook but I couldn't find you, it's full of Marian Rădulescu. I wanted to post these words on your profile. Maybe you give me a valid link. Until then, I wish you happy holidays

Dear Mr. Mihai Uica.
I did not feel offended at all and I do not want to get into a controversy. Yes, I would very much like to know each other better, I can give you many more recipes from the areas, some even authentic and, so to speak, in the last & # 8222audition & # 8221, it's a pity that the distance separates us.
On Facebook you can find me at the RA-LIBRIS LITERARY ASSOCIATION or with Marian Radulescu from Buzau. I have a picture, an old man with white hair and glasses on his nose, like any grandmother. I'm waiting for you.
maybe I'll find another copy of my books to send you.

I'm from Bucharest moved to Buzau.
My husband has a big uncle.
He kept grilling us with some Babic appetizer made by him.
She doesn't want to give me the recipe at all and look so eager to eat to my heart's content I looked for the recipe and I'm determined to try it

This recipe is also interesting, but it brings more with the Spanish chorizo.

Hello, in the recipe we are talking about adding in stages the SWEET paprika, the QUICK paprika when it is put?
2. Please define what "a drop of pepper" means?
Thank you very much!


180. With cottage cheese

The foods allowed in this diet provide the body with all the nutrients it needs and do not starve you. For maximum effects, you should drink two liters of plain water a day and not eat anything after 20.00.
DAILY MENU

  • Breakfast: A glass of skim milk, a hard-boiled egg, a slice of wholemeal toast and a little skim cheese.
  • Snack: A fruit (apple, orange, kiwi, banana) or a vegetable (tomato, cucumber, carrot) of your choice.
  • Lunch: A vegetable salad (lettuce, spinach, celery, beets, tomatoes, cucumbers, green onions, radishes) with grilled or boiled chicken breast and a fruit of your choice to avoid lowering your blood sugar.
  • Snack: A diet yogurt or an anti-fat tea.
  • Dinner: A baked potato, a seasonal salad (tomatoes, cucumbers, green onions) and two tablespoons of skimmed cottage cheese (you can mix cottage cheese with potatoes).

Efficiency: Lose weight 6-8 kg / month.
Specialist's opinion: Consumption of cottage cheese has been shown to play an important role in maintaining a beautiful and slim figure, by the way it acts and controls appetite. Dairy products help to reduce body weight, as they reduce the absorption of glucose in the intestine and improve its rate of metabolism. The result of the diet is as expected: the amount of fat decreases.


Frequent meals, the key to a dream figure

90. Heidi Klum Diet

The secret of Heidi Klum's diet is the small but frequent meals every three hours. She eats an apple when she is hungry and does not eat anything after 20:00.

The diet that helped Heidi lose 10 pounds in two months after her last pregnancy has the following schedule:

Breakfast: a shake full of protein (180 calories, commercially available), followed at 10:00 by an omelet of 4 eggs with vegetables.

Lunch: saute broccoli with a teaspoon of olive oil chicken salad without skin. As an afternoon snack, eat 10-12 natural almonds.

Dinner:
again protein shake or a small portion of roasted or boiled turkey.

91. Premarital diet

Six meals a day are recommended. Try to limit the portions (of vegetables, meat, carbohydrates) to the amount that would fit in your palm. It is recommended to include in the diet & # 8220a protein & # 8221, & # 8220a carbohydrate & # 8221, a vegetable and a fruit at every meal.

Here is the menu that will help you lose 3 kg per week:

First meal: a shake with milk protein to be semi-skimmed

Second meal: 1/2 apple and cottage cheese (or yogurt)

Third meal: boiled chicken breast (without skin) with a small portion of vegetable salad

Fourth meal:
cheese and half an apple

Fifth meal: a piece of lean meat, rice (or boiled potatoes) and vegetables

Sixth table: low-fat chocolate pudding.

92. Diet of Athletes

The diet was developed by a team of sports doctors from the USA and, kept correctly, it helps you to lose 20 kg in two months.

Morning: Every morning, two apples or two peaches until 12.00.

DAY 1 & # 8211 Lunch: boiled or grilled meat (200 gr) instead of meat you can eat three boiled or fried eggs and cheese + a slice of bread (graham or black), salad in unlimited quantities without oil.

In the evening: everything you ate for lunch, but cut in half.

DAY 2 & # 8211 Lunch: any kind of boiled vegetables. Here you can make any combination and eat it in the form of soup or food, to which you add a slice of bread and salad in unlimited quantities.

In the evening: Everything you ate at lunch, but cut in half.

DAY 3 & # 8211 Lunch: Spicy boiled noodles or pizza (no cheese and meat, only vegetables).

In the evening: a slice of cake or ice cream.

DAY 4 Any kind of fruit in unlimited quantity. Where the weight has not been specified, eat as much as desired, but not excessively.

It is a diet that brings everything the body needs. Tea and coffee can be drunk in unlimited quantities.

93. 5-day diet

Here is a diet that can help you if you follow it for five days according to the instructions. To lose between 3 and 5 kilograms, and if you deviate a little, you can still lose two kilograms.

hour 6: drink a sugar-free coffee

8 o'clock:
unsweetened herbal tea

10 o'clock: a triangle of melted cheese

12 pm: 150 grams of chicken or pork parizer

14 hours: half a packet of diet cheese & # 8211 200 g

16 o'clock: 500 ml of tomato juice

6 pm: a hard boiled egg

8 pm: a diet yogurt

22 hours: an Apple.

94. Diet Dr. Agnes Aubry

You lose 2-3 kg in 7 days. 3 days & # 8220whites & # 8221 & # 8211 Monday, Friday and Saturday, eat only totally skimmed milk (yogurt, milk and 0% fat cheese).

Near dairy: 3 slices of toast a day. 3 days & # 8220green & # 8221 & # 8211 Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, eat only fresh or steamed vegetable salads, accompanied by a portion of rice (boiled in water, no fat).

One Sunday & # 8220red & # 8221 & # 8211 Sunday, when it's free to meat and fish, but only grilled or cooked. Add a portion of vegetables (salad) or rice next to it.

Required: after each meal, drink a glass of hot water or a glass of water with a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar. Any other foods such as bread, sweets, soft drinks, alcohol are excluded.

95. The "Spring" Diet

Properly covered, it will withstand a great deal of adverse conditions. She is losing weight slowly but surely. The body receives all the nutrients it needs and there is no starvation. For maximum effects, consume 2 liters of plain water per day and stop consuming any food after 20.00.

Morning: a glass of skim milk a hard-boiled egg a slice of wholemeal bread, toasted, & # 8220sunk & # 8221 with low-fat cottage cheese.

Snack: a fruit (apple, orange, kiwi, banana) or a vegetable (tomato, cucumber, carrot) of your choice.

The lunch:
A vegetable salad (lettuce, spinach, celery, beets, tomatoes, cucumbers, green onions, radishes) with grilled chicken breast or boiled fruit of your choice to avoid lowering blood sugar.

Dinner:
a baked potato, along with a seasonal salad (tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, green onions) and low-fat cottage cheese.

96. The alternative regime

You lose 4-5 kg ​​in 6-7 days, eating at your discretion as follows:

& # 8211 Tuesday: vegetables (cooked or raw)

& # 8211 Wednesday: fruits and vegetables

& # 8211 Thursday: skim milk and bananas at will

& # 8211 Friday: boiled meat (chicken or veal) without garnish and tomato juice (tomatoes)

& # 8211 Saturday: meat (grill) and vegetable salad with lemon juice

& # 8211 Sunday: boiled rice (200 g) and fruit juice.

Coffee, salt and oil are excluded, and it is mandatory to drink 2 liters of liquids (tea or water) per day.

97. The egg diet

The cure consists of:

Morning, every day (Monday to Sunday): two eggs, sugar-free black coffee, 1 grapefruit.

Lunch (Monday-Friday): two eggs, sugar-free black coffee and a green or boiled vegetable salad.

Saturday: sugar-free fruit salad (excluding grapes, plums, pears).

Sunday: boiled or fried chicken, cold, tomato salad, 1 grapefruit.

Monday & # 8211 two eggs, salad, a slice of toast

Tuesday & # 8211 a slice of lean cooked meat (cold), lettuce with a little grated celery, a cucumber and a few olives

Wednesday & # 8211 two eggs, salad and whipped milk (one cup)

Thursday & # 8211 two eggs, white cabbage salad, a slice of toast, a cup of whipped milk

Friday & # 8211 boiled fish, lettuce, a slice of toast, a grapefruit, sugar-free black coffee

Saturday & # 8211 boiled or roasted meat, salad with a little celery, cucumbers, tomatoes, black coffee without sugar

Sunday & # 8211 some soup, cold chicken, raw cabbage salad and tomatoes. The eggs will be eaten boiled, hard (but not ripe).

The evening meal should not exceed 19:00. Consume about 1.5 liters of water or unsweetened tea a day at room temperature. After this diet you can weigh at least 5 kilograms less.

98. Lipotropic diet

The concept of the lipotropic diet (based on amino acids) belongs to researchers at California universities. It is based on a combination of natural foods, highly effective in burning fat.

What you are allowed to eat: fish, poultry, crayfish, liver, kidney, fresh fruit and vegetables. Half a cup of cottage cheese is recommended daily, mixed with paddy rice (boiled for about 20 minutes) and vegetable oil. Soy is also welcome in this combination. Poultry, fish or organs, all at your discretion, should be seasoned with plenty of lemon juice. As many citrus fruits as possible are recommended.

The diet can be kept until the desired weight is reached.

Efficiency: About 750 g are lost in the first week

& # 8211 in the second week it reaches 1,250 kg

& # 8211 in the third week & # 8211 2 kg

& # 8211 in the fourth week & # 8211 3 kg

& # 8211 in the fifth week & # 8211 4 kg

& # 8211 in the sixth week & # 8211 5 kg.

99. Superdiet with citrus

It's time to take advantage of citrus and reach your dream weight. For three days take a breakfast of your choice, a hot meal, a cold one and many more citrus fruits daily. Lemons, oranges, mandarins and grapefruits are very rich in vitamin C and facilitate fat burning. Good digestion and a balanced metabolism will be your strengths. With the necessary vitamin C, the body burns fat and is toned. After the 3 days of citrus pampering, you will lose two kilograms.

100. Borscht diet recipe

It lasts 7 days, in which 4-5 kg ​​are easily lost.

Day I: fruit + a cup of borscht

Day II: vegetables + two cups of borscht

Day III: vegetables and fruits + 3 cups borscht

Day IV:
3 bananas + 4 cups borscht

Day V: beef (boiled or grilled), tomatoes + 5 cups borscht

Day VI: beef and vegetables + 6 cups borscht

Day VII:
rice (hulled) and natural fruit juice, vegetables + 7 cups borscht.


105. Spring diet

In spring, on the market stalls you can find salad, radishes, onions and green beans, from which you can prepare tasty salads and side dishes. It is best to combine vegetables with fish.
MONTHS
Breakfast: Coffee.
Lunch: 100 g grilled salmon, 200 g grilled pumpkin, a slice of bread.
Dinner: 200 ml vegetable soup, 150 g baked pike, 50 g polenta.
TUESDAY
Breakfast: Coffee.
Lunch: 150 ml fish soup with vegetables, 200 g salad of boiled rice, tuna, bell peppers, tomatoes and cucumbers.
Dinner: 150 g boiled shallots, 200 g sauteed vegetables.
WEDNESDAY
Breakfast: Coffee.
Lunch: 200 g grilled pasta, 150 g green beans sautéed with 30 g tomato sauce.
Dinner: 100 g potatoes with 50 g tuna, 200 g lettuce, a bell pepper, a cucumber, a slice of bread.
THURSDAY
Breakfast: Coffee.
Lunch: 150 ml of green bean soup, 200 g of skewers with mackerel, tomatoes, onions and bell peppers.
Dinner: 150 g baked pike with tomatoes, pumpkin, onion, 50 g polenta.
FRIDAY
Breakfast: Coffee.
Lunch: 200 ml fish soup, 100 g eggplant salad, two slices of bread.
Dinner: 150 g of trout brine, 50 g of polenta, a tablespoon of mujdei.
SATURDAY
Breakfast: Coffee.
Lunch: 150 ml of pumpkin cream soup, 150 g baked sea bream with 100 g sauteed mushrooms.
Dinner: 250 g potato salad with 100 g smoked mackerel, 30 g olives, an onion.
SUNDAY
Breakfast: Coffee.
Lunch:
200 g baked pike, 200 g grilled pumpkin with garlic.
Dinner: 100 g tuna, 200 g lettuce with bell pepper, cucumber, onion and 30 g bread croutons.
Efficiency: You lose 4 pounds in two weeks.
Specialist's opinion: Coffee on an empty stomach is not indicated. The absence of fruit snacks is another major drawback. The diet can provide results, but only for a short time.


Couscous with veal - Sunday lunch - Recipes

The present study aims to make a gastronomic radiograph of medieval Transylvania during the last quarter of the seventeenth century, governed by the rule of Prince Michael Apafy I and his wife, Anna Bornemisza. At the urging of the last princess of the Făgăraș Fortress, one of the first cookbooks of the time appears in manuscript form, in Hungarian, perhaps the most complex from a culinary point of view until then, which bears witness to approximately 1,000 recipes being cooked. with pomp and dichis at the princely court. The manuscript is written largely within the walls of a fortress that was never conquered, that of Făgăraș, in 1680, and three centuries later it sees the light of day, also in the author's mother tongue. Currently, most of the "Anna Bornemisza's Cookbook" has been translated into Romanian by Făgăraş museographers and in recent years it has even managed to cook demonstratively according to medieval recipes. Our study shows that in a Transylvania ruined by Turkish taxes, without potatoes and corn, but rich in hunting grounds and massive imports of spices, the festive lunches at the princely court reflected, in the 12 dishes, an abundance that it exceeded all expectations.

Dining with a Transylvanian princess

The purpose of the present study is to draw a gastronomic map of medieval Transylvania, during the last 25 years of the 17th century, under the rule of Prince Michael I Apafi and of his wife, Anna Bornemisza. On the initiative of the last princess of the Făgăraş Citadel, one of the first culinary books of the time was conceived, written in Hungarian, in manuscript form. It was probably the most complex culinary text produced until that day, revealing approximately 1,000 recipes sumptuously and meticulously prepared at the prince & # 8217s court. The 1680 manuscript was written, for the most part, inside the walls of the Făgăraş Citadel, which remained unconquered, and it was published three centuries later, in the author & # 8217s maternal language. Today, most of & # 8220Anna Bornemisza & # 8217s Cookbook & # 8221 has been translated into Romanian by the Făgăraş museographers, and culinary demonstrations using medieval recipes have been organized in recent years. Our study is intended to show that, in a Transylvania ruined by Ottoman taxes, lacking potatoes and corn, but rich in hunting areas and massively imported spices, the 12-course festive lunches at the prince & # 8217s court reflected an abundance which exceeded all expectations .

Medieval Făgăraș, a historical nuance

In the late Middle Ages, through marriage, a Hungarian princess became mistress of Transylvania. She was not alone, but she was unique in her passion for gastronomy.

Anna Bornemisza & # 8211 foto Wikipedia

Anna Bornemisza [1], the descendant of a Calvinist family of Hungarian nobles, when she married the penultimate prince of Transylvania, Mihail Apafy I [2], received as a wedding gift the Făgăraş Fortress. It was customary for the princes of Transylvania to present their wives with a castle.

The Făgăraş Fortress thus passed, as a gift, from Princess Ana Nadasdy (wife of voivode Ştefan Mailat), to Princess Maria Christierna (wife of Sigismund Bathory), then to Mrs. Stanca (wife of Mihai Viteazu), then to Caterina de Brandenburg (wife of Gabriel Bethlen), then to Szuszanna Lorantffy (wife of George Rakoczy I) and finally to Anna Bornemisza (wife of Michael Apafy).

The female figures, who left their mark on the Făgăraş fortification, determined some historians - among whom we mention Prof. Florentin Olteanu, the one who founded the “Negru Vodă” Cultural Foundation - to make it a motto of the Citadel: "The Citadel of Princesses". However, she did not become known in this way, because her present would be more related to the deeds of arms, to the detriment of her brilliant masters. So, if you ever pass by the crossroads of Sibiu and Brasov counties, you will hear more about "The fortress that was never conquered." And so it has been in the scriptures, but also in its history of almost 800 years: by force of arms it has never been defeated.

The fortress had German, Hungarian and Romanian cuisine

This study covers a period of a quarter of a century, the end of the seventeenth century, which has an extremely diverse gastronomy under the guidance of Anna Bornemisza.

The princess is recorded in history as the author of one of the first cookbooks in medieval Transylvania, with over 1,000 recipes, even if in fact she only gave the order to write the work.

In our approach, we were joined by Dr. Elena Băjenaru, the manager of the museum "Valer Literat" from Făgăraş Fortress and one of the authors of the work "Fragments of history. Făgăraş Fortress ”, published in Făgăraş in 2017, one of the few works in which we find gastronomic aspects from Transylvania of those years.

The historical context meant that, in the second half of the 17th century, the capital of Transylvania was in Alba Iulia, but the fortress there, being destroyed by the Turks, after 1658 could no longer be used as a princely residence, so the whole court princess moved to Făgăraş. Anna Bornemisza and Mihail Apafy I were therefore always present in the Făgăraş Fortress.

Mihail Apafy I became prince in 1661 and moved with his wife to the castle of Făgăraş two years later. Princess Anna was the owner of the Făgăraş Fortress for 25 years, from 1663 to 1688 when she died. The prince lives another two years and dies, right in the Făgăraş Fortress, in 1690 [3].

It should be noted that during their time in the Citadel, a mint was set up that struck the largest gold coins in Transylvania, with the coat of arms of Ţara Făgăraşului, being considered numismatists some of the most valuable coins in Europe at that time. At the National Museum of History of Romania we find such a coin on display today. According to Prof. Florentin Olteanu, the mint issued gold coins of 100 ducats, 300 grams each, between 1673-1675. Prince Michael Apafy developed a lot of iron, silver, but especially gold. He also instructed that iron be banned for export. [4]

,, In the inventory are recorded three kitchens of the Citadel, as follows: German cuisine, Hungarian cuisine and Romanian cuisine. To this day, we have not been able to identify what our kitchen means, not in terms of space, but in terms of cuisine. The kitchens, the place where the bread was baked or the place where the cakes were made were, as a space, in the Guard Corps. When festive meals were organized, from there to the place where the meal was served, in the Lunch Palaces or the Old Palaces (they were so named because they were the first to be built), the covered food was brought on horseback, the servants came and knelt before the prince and princess. they brought with them tablecloths made of gold thread. The master of ceremonies said the "Our Father" prayer, after which water was poured on the diners to wash their hands. When serving the meal, young people from the noble families from Ţara Făgăraşului were engaged, it was considered that serving the prince and the princess was a dignity in itself ”, relates Dr. E. Băjenaru.

Such meals were attended by European figures that we read about in history textbooks today: Sobieski (once as Grand Hatman of Poland, then as King), the historian Miron Costin (at least two visits are recorded), etc.

Anna Bornemisza's cookbook

The princess decided to leave to posterity, recorded on paper, the dishes that were cooked during the time she ruled this yard, almost a thousand in number. "Anna Bornemisza's cookbook" (exactly how it was translated) was started in 1680 in the Citadel of Făgăraş at the urging of the princess, and her writing lasted 8 months. The manuscript was finished at Iernut and contains her handwritten signature.

The original manuscript, in Hungarian, is today at the Library of the Romanian Academy in Cluj. In 1983, the Kriterion publishing house published the transcription in Hungarian.

The representatives of the “Valer Literat” Făgăraş Museum have translated over time the most important passages of the cookbook, from the introductory part to many recipes.

The book shows that a lot of meat was eaten at that time, especially from "four-legged animals". Beef predominated, then poultry [5], lamb, fish and only then pork. Pork is consumed very little compared to what we call contemporary consumption.

The price was high on spices. The fortress had its own chief seasoner who kept the spice goodies, which were literally a fortune, locked under lock and key. Saffron, for example, is often found in the preparation of dishes of the time. Anise was also quite common in the princess's court, as were lemon and orange. If we even suspected for a moment that in the late Middle Ages the menu was poor and made up of what was gnawing in the local soil, here is the recipe of Anna Bornemisza to correct our wrong faith.

Also in the book we find indications on how the wine was prepared, because impressive quantities of this Bachus liqueur were poured into the diners' glasses, although beer was also made at that time. "Somewhere around 11,000 buckets [6] of wine are drunk at an interval of three months [7]", notes Dr. Elena Băjenaru. This, in the context in which the walls of the fortification housed around 300 people, with all the administrative staff, from the foreman to the janitor.

Instructions were kept by Prince George Rakoczy I [8] that there be food and drink for 1,000 people in the Citadel at all times for a year. At that time, the whole of Făgăraş had 2,000 inhabitants, being considered one of the largest cities of the time. However, the castle housed only 300 souls.

Fagaras Fortress & # 8211 photo: Carpathian Mountains

In the time of the princess, there was no shortage of chocolate from the court in Făgăraş. "We have a mention from the end of the seventeenth century in which it is shown that it was consumed chocolate (s.n), but not to be confused with the village of Cuciulata, ”mentions E. Băjenaru. In the scripts of the time, reference is made to the village of Cuciulata in Brasov County, which exists under the same name even today, being known as the native village of Aron Pumnul.

The fortress had its own glacier three centuries ago, capable of producing ice and in the middle of hot summers, it had a so-called lictarium[9] - that warehouse where the jams were kept, had a special room for vinegar, because the vinegar was not missing from the menus of the Transylvanian princes [10].

In "Anna Bornemisza's Cookbook" the quantities of ingredients are completely missing. They are only listed and, through a short description, the way of preparation is shown, leaving their weight to the skill of the most skilled chefs. We are not mistaken if we say that we can no longer reproduce exactly any recipe from there as three centuries ago: firstly because the taste of vegetables then changed a lot due to fertilizers and fertilizer treatments used today, secondly because the varieties have known transformations, thirdly because we do not have exact quantities of products in the description of recipes.

From the weather

As E. Băjenaru describes in the paper mentioned above, lunch and dinner were the most important meals of the day and were always served at the same time: 10.00 and 17.00. A princely meal with distinguished guests (kings, princes, messengers, nobles) meant about 12 kinds of dishes, cooked with dichis to delight the taste buds of those received at the castle.

the volume appeared in 1983 at the Kriterion publishing house

Here is what was once served at a meal given in honor of the Polish soil received in 1681 in Făgăraş: the first course were pork nails in vinegar, then soup with rice, beef in juice and carrots, lamb stuffed with bacon, curries / cabbage with bacon, turkey, goose and capon [11] with Italian salad, apple puree, pike cooked in Polish style sweet cousin, wild pork with cloves, pheasant steak with jam. The cakes followed: buttery cakes filled with cheese and then almond tart, followed by wines. Various species of mountain curd, mixed grapes and female jams (apple pancakes, donuts) were served, as well as snails, marzipan and wine. [12]

From the princess's cookbook we also bring to light other dishes of medieval Transylvania: beef stew, blood sausage and wild boar beetle, fried deer liver, venison horn food, peas with fried bacon, goose boiled with rice, roasted wild rooster, roasted partridge, roasted mistletoe thrushes [13], wild boar steak, wild goose fried with bacon and stuffed with green herbs, roasted pigeon, chicken carbonara, roasted swan, roasted swan, roasted swan deer, wild boar tongue, etc.

We notice that animal proteins abound at princely meals and there is no balance between them and vegetable proteins. One explanation would be that certain vegetables or cereals, such as potatoes and corn, did not yet exist in Europe or were barely entering. The potato [14] appears a hundred years later on the territory of Transylvania from the time when these meals were served, and the corn [15] about that time reaches Transylvania, but it was not widespread. However, in addition to raising animals, în perioada respectivă nu lipseau celelalte culturi cerealiere, viticultura, pomăritul și legumicultura.

Reţete vechi şi noi

Multe dintre cele aproape 1.000 de reţete ale principesei au fost traduse de reprezentanţii Muzeului ,,Valer Literat”[16]. Ba chiar s-a şi încercat la Făgăraş, în anul 2017, printr-un proiect ce se numea ,,Zilele bucătăriei medievale”[17], să se gătească, azi, preparate, de atunci, după indicaţiile din cartea de bucate.

Cu ajutorul traducerilor realizate de muzeograful Judith Grapă, vom reda în cele ce urmează câteva dintre reţetele din ,,Cartea de bucate a Annei Bornemisza”[18].

Rinichi tocat pe pâine prăjită

Când carnea de viţel s-a prăjit, scoate rinichii împreună cu grăsimea. Ia două albuşuri, scorţişoară şi zahăr. Taie pătrunjelul mărunt. Să nu pui sare. Toacă toate acestea mărunt. Până se răceşte, prăjeşte felii de pâine pe o parte şi pune această tochitură deasupra. Pune un pic de unt într-o tavă, aşează feliile în tavă şi acoperă această tavă. Pune tava pe jar şi pune şi deasupra tăvii jar. Lasă să se prăjească. Partea de sus să fie acoperită cu mai mult jar decât partea de jos. Este o mâncare nobilă dată în faţa împăratului, cât şi în faţa regelui. Când serveşti acest fel de mâncare, pune deasupra zahăr, scorţişoară şi, dacă are gust acru, pune-i ghimbir[19].

Fierbe carnea de capră cu agrişe. Zdrobeşte agrişele, toarnă vin peste, ia boabe de struguri şi pune-le în această zeamă. Mai adaugă şi unt, tarhon şi mărghiran, aşa o să aibă un gust bun. Bucătarii unguri mai adaugă şi ghimbir, dar aşa capătă un gust amar[20].

Scoate pecia de la bou, nu există o carne mai bună în bou. Prăjeşte-o, iar atunci când vrei să o serveşti curăţă miez de migdală şi nucă. Înmoaie miez de pâine albă în zeamă de găină. După care zdrobeşte totul într-un mojar. Dacă este un amestesc prea dens, toarnă din acea zeamă în care s-a înmuiat pâinea, dar să nu fie prea gras, să rămână alb. Când vrei să îl serveşti, toarnă-l rece sub pecie sau pune-l separat într-un castron. În italiană are denumirea de maniade. Este o mâncare foarte domnească, poate fi dusă şi în faţa împăratului sau a regelui[21].

Fierbe carnea în zeamă de carne de vită şi oţet. Pune făină prăjită în ea, adaugă şi lămâie tăiată peste. Prepară apoi cu piper, ghimbir, şofran. Iar, dacă nu vrei să pui făină prăjită, lasă să firbă cu pâine înmuiată în vin: o să aibă un gust mai bun[22].

Jupoaie o gâscă întreagă. Desfă carnea de pe oase. Toacă mărunt împreună cu slănina, condimentează umplutura şi pune-o în jurul oaselor. Trage peste pielea şi închide frumos. Fierbe gâsca în apă, scoate-o afară şi porţioneaz-o frumos. Prăjeşte-o pe grătar. Atunci când o serveşti să faci o zeamă acră sub ea, aşa este o mâncare bună[23].

Taie păsătrăvul, aruncă-l în apă fierbinte, opăreşte-l. Amestecă usturoi în oţet, pune sare peste păstrăv, pune-l în acest amestec. Lasă să stea acolo o oră. Scoate-l, prăjeşte-l la grătar şi stropeşte-l cu unt. Fierbe zeama în care s-a înmuiat, iar dacă este prea acră adaugă zeamă de mazăre. Pune piper şi toarnă peste păstrăv, o să aibă un gust bun[24].

Taie cotorul din varză. Umple-o cu carne de viţel şi fierbe în zeamă de vacă[25].

Orez fiert în zeamă de vacă

Fierbe bine orezul în zeamă de vacă. Adaugă untura luată de pe zeama de viţel, aşa o să aibă un gust bun. Şi când s-a fiert, pune şi ierburi verzi tăiate mărunt[26].

Orez fiert în lapte şi prăjit în unt

Fierbe orezul în lapte până se îngroaşă. Pune sare şi zahăr. Răstoarnă amestecul pe o scândură şi acoperă-l. Lasă să se răcească. Taie-l bucăţi, presară-l cu făină şi pune-l în unt fierbinte. Prăjeşte-l încet, o să fie un deliciu. Când serveşti, presari zahăr peste[27].

Ia pere, curăţă-le şi taie-le în 4 bucăţi. Aruncă-le în unt şi căleşte-le. După care pune-le într-o cană şi fierbe-le în must dulce, care a fost dat într-un clocot. Pune scorţişoară şi anason. Nu trebuie să pui zahăr, doar presară peste[28].

Deşi prepararea rețetelor pare în sine o ușurință, datorită descrierii succinte, rezumative a acestora, e lesne de apreciat că lucrurile nu stau deloc așa. Cele mai multe rețete folosesc cărnuri tari, cum ar fi de vită sau mistreț, a căror fierbere sau prăjire necesită stăruință. Gătitul la jar, sub și peste carne, elimină orice simplitate în prepararea rețetei.

Ceea ce aduc, însă, foarte mult în actualitate felurile de mâncare de acum trei secole sunt condimentele. Folosite în exces atunci erau piperul, anasonul, șofranul, ghimbirul, scorțișoara și, mai ales oțetul, dacă alegem să-l poziționăm și pe el în categoria condimentelor. Astăzi prezența lor rămâne, dar cantitatea scade.

Poate că am fi tentați să credem că în prezent au dispărut complet din farfurii multe dintre înaripatele și ,,animalele cu patru picioare” ale Evului Mediu. Ce-i drept, s-a redus simțitor consumul lor, dar încă rămân actuale, dacă ne gândim la rețetele preparate din carne de vânat. În trei secole, vastele domenii de vânătoare de la curțile princiare au fost înlocuite cu așezăminte urbane și rurale, pădurile au fost puse la pământ, populația a crescut într-un ritm alarmant (numai Făgărașul cu 2.000 de suflete a ajuns între timp orașul cu 30.000 de locuitori), au apărut interdicții de vânătoare la specii în cursul anului[29] (de exemplu, căpriorul, potârnichea, sturzul de vâsc, porumbelul etc. se vânează numai de toamna și doar până la începutul primăverii). Toate acestea fac ca azi mistrețul,de pildă, să nu fie un meniu la ordinea zilei, dar nici să dispară complet ca răsfăț culinar.

La trei veacuri distanță de principesa Anna Bornemisza și a sa carte de bucate,fără prea mari eforturi, încă putem luaun prânzcu miros și gust de atunci. Întrebarea este până când? Sau în ce se va transforma acesta?

(CRISTINA CORNILĂ)

Bibliografie

  1. Andea, Susana, Andea, Avram, Transilvania în timpul lui Mihai I Apafi, în Istoria Românilor, vol. V, coordonator acad. Virgil Cândea, ed. Eniclopedică, București, 2003.
  2. Apor, Peter, Metamorphosis Transylvaniae, Hargita, Csikzsereda, 2012.
  3. Băjenaru, Elena, Grapă Judith, Fragmente de istorie. Cetatea Făgăraş, Făgăraş, 2017.
  4. Jozsef,Lukacs, Principele ceasornicar în Revista Apostrof a Uniunii Scriitorilor, nr. 7/2015.
  5. Olteanu, Florentin, Olteanu, Lucreția, Mago, Ana, Cetatea principeselor, https://issuu.com/ciprianl./docs/principesele_cetatii_fagaras, accesat în 11 iunie 2019.
  6. Pop–Curşeu, Ioan, Magie şi vrăjitorie în cultura română, Ed. Polirom, 2013.

[1] O descoperim descrisă de autorii de senzaţional mai mult ca principesa care suferea din cauza demenţeiîncă din copilărie şi care credea că vrăjitoarele, încarnate în muşte cu ajutorul Diavolului, vor să îi facă rău (Ioan Pop–Curşeu, Magie şi vrăjitorie în cultura română, Ed. Polirom, 2013). Cu toate acestea, principesa avea alte calităţi care îi puneau în umbrăexacerbata ei teamă vrăjitorească: era o fire inteligentă nativ, era o bună organizatoare a curţii, era frumoasă şi ambiţioasă.

[2] Se naşte în 1632, în satul Ibaşfalău, denumit astăzi Dumbăveni, județul Sibiu. La vârsta de 3 ani devine orfan de atată. Ajunge principe al Transilvaniei la 29 de ani şi îşi păstrează acest statut încă 29 de ani. Moare a vârsta de 58 de ani.Este descris ca un mare pasionat de ceasuri (supranumit ,,principele ceasornicar” în studiul lui Lukacs Jozsef, Principele ceasornicar, în Revista,,Apostrof” a Uniunii Scriitorilor, nr. 7, 2015), un iubitor al vânătorii şi al vinului. Nu se poate afirma cu precizie dacă chiar credea că soţiei sale i se fac vrăji care îi deteriorează sănătatea sau doar se folosea de acest pretext ca să întemniţeze şi să condamne la moarte presupuse vrăjitoare. Interesant este că unele dintre aşa-zisele vrăjitoare persecutate erau soţii ale oponenţilor săi politici.

[3] După moarte, trupul principesei Ana Bornemisza a fost zidit în sacristia bisericii din Mălâncrav, jud. Sibiu, ctitorie a familiei Apafy. Tot aici a ajuns și cel al soțului său, însă numai după 10 luni de la deces (timp în care sicirul său sigiliat a fost depus într-una din încăperile Cetății Făgăraș), precum și cel al fiului lor, Mihail Apafy al II-lea. În 1908, osemintele acestora au fost mutate la Cluj în biserica reformată din strada Lupilor. Biserica era în renovare, ceremonia de înhumare a fost amânată, iar apoi a izbucnit Primul Război Mondial, astfel că au rămas într-o încăpere a acestui lăcaș de cult până în 1942, când s-a făcut pentru prima dată o ceremonie de înmormântare și apoi trupurile au fost înmormântate după obicei. Abia la 252 de ani de la moarte, principele Apafy a avut și primul său monument funerar (Lukacs Jozsef, art. cit.).

[4] Susana Andea, Avram Andea, Transilvania în timpul lui Mihai I Apafi, în Istoria Românilor, vol. V, coordonator acad. Virgil Cândea, Ed. Enciclopedică, București, 2003, p. 341.

[5]Dintre înaripate, pe primul loc la gătit era găina (E. Băjenaru, J. Grapă, Fragmente de istorie. Cetatea Făgăraş, Făgăraş, 2017, p. 50).

[6] Veche unitate de măsură echivalentă cu 10 litri.

[7] Unul dintre cei mai mari băutori de vin de la curte era tocmai principele Mihail Apafy I. Acesta era renumit pentru că atunci când se apuca să bea nimeni din jurul său nu putea să se sustragă de la această activitate şi toţi trebuiau să bea până cădeau sub masă. Principele însuși bea câte o vadră de vin și nu se îmbăta. (Peter Apor, Metamorphosis Transylvaniae, Hargita, Csikzsereda, 2012, apud Lukacs Jozsef, art. cit.).

[8] A fost principele Transilvaniei în perioada 1630-1648.

[9] Cuvânt de provenineţă maghiară.

[10] Oţetul era preparat chiar la curte din vin sau agrişe. ,,Casa oţetului” se ştie că era la niveul I, pe latura de vest a Cetăţii Făgăraş (E. Băjenaru, J. Grapă, op.cit., p. 51).Oţetul este folosit încă din antichitate, pe post de condiment, medicament, dezinfectant, deodorant, cosmetic, anestezic(singur sau în combinaţie) etc. Inclusiv clisme s-au făcut de-a lungul timpului cu oţet. În Evul Mediu, acesta a ajuns la un nivel maxim de exploatare, mai ales în ce priveşte funcţia sa de condiment.

[11] Cocoş castrat. Claponul se găteşte şi în ţările Europei de astăzi, îl găsim în special în Italia.

[12] E. Băjenaru, J. Grapă, op. cit., pp. 55 – 56.

[13] Specie de pasăre de talie mică, migratoare, ce se găseşte de regulă în sălbăticie.

[14] În Europa, cartoful pătrunde după anul 1530, când spaniolii îl descoperă în Peru şi îl aduc în Spania. Pe teritoriul ţării noastre, prima oară s-a cultivat cartoful în Transilvania, abia apoi s-a răspândit în Ţara Românească şi Moldova. Din punct de vedere documentar, cartoful apare pe teritoriul Transilvaniei abia în 1769,când oficialitățile Guberniatului Regal al Marelui Principat al Transilvaniei (Sibiu) dau o circulară privind cultura cartofului, deoarece existau serioase voci din partea populației care se opuneau culturii acestei plante.

[15] Porumbul este adus, din Americi, în Europa în anul 1493 de către Cristofor Columb. Pe teritoriul Transilvaniei există consemnări că deja exista după anul 1661, dar uzul său nu era încă în deplinătate. ,,Pentru economia rurală, perioada de liniște și stabilitate care a urmat evenimentelor din anii 1658 – 1661 a însemnat nu numai refacerea potențialului demografic, ci și relansarea producției agricole, diversificată și îmbogățită acum de cultivarea porumbului, în pofida ostilității nobiliare și a hotărârilor restrictive ale adunării țării, precum cea din 1686” (Susana Andea, Avram Andea, Transilvania în timpul lui Mihai I Apafi, în Istoria Românilor, vol. V, coordonator acad. Virgil Cândea, ed. Enciclopedică, București, 2003, p. 341).

[16] Traducerile îi aparţin muzeografului Judith Grapă.

[17] Festivalul gastronomic s-a desfăşurat în perioada 22-23 septembrie 2017 la Cetatea Făgăraş, ocazie cu care bucătarii au gătit brânză dulce cu cheag natural, cârnaț de clapon, supă de păstrăv, pecie de taur cu sos de pâine, migdale și cartofi copți în untură. Ca desert, în cadrul cinei demonstrative, cei prezenți au putut servi orez în lapte prăjit în unt, cu sos de fructe de pădure.

[18] În Fragmente de istorie. Cetatea Făgăraş, Făgăraş, 2017, p. 57.

[29] În fiecare an, Ministrul Apelor și Pădurilor instituie prin ordin aprobarea cotelor de recoltă pentru speciile de vânat și perioada exactă de vânătoare.

Acest studiu a apărut în volumul ,,Abordări multidisciplinare în ştiinţele şi artele gastronomice”, Editura Universităţii ,,Lucian Blaga” Sibiu, 2019, în cadrul proiectului ,,Sibiu 2019. Regiune gastronomică europeană”.