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UN Diplomats Get Called Out for Being Drunk at Work

UN Diplomats Get Called Out for Being Drunk at Work

Apparently, US ambassadors have had to request that drunk diplomats be banned from the negotiation room

Yes, we admit that every Friday or so at 5 p.m., (or, OK, maybe Thursday, too) we do sometimes crack open a cold one or pour a shot of whiskey, if only to celebrate the end of the work week.

Still, however, we can hardly believe this report from AFP, which says Joseph Torsella, deputy U.S. ambassador for management and reform, has had to ask tipsy ambassadors to stay out of negotiations.

"We make the modest proposal that the negotiating rooms should in future be an inebriation-free zone," Torsella told the UN General Assembly’s budget committee.

Apparently, the assembly's budget body's negotiations every December turn into marathon sessions, lasting all night for several days. Because of the intense schedule, some UN envoys have reportedly turned up "falling down drunk." "On one occasion the note-taker who was meant to be recording the talks was so intoxicated he had to be replaced," one diplomat said.

Naturally, we're sure people actually neogitating the UN budget aren't completely black-out drunk. At least we hope so; we all know what alcohol does to decision-making.

Tired + sober but feel like you're drunk? Here's why.

We all know the health hazards of not getting enough sleep. Now a new study has found that a lack of shut-eye can affect the brain in the same way as being drunk.

It&rsquos to do with how alert we feel &ndash or don&rsquot feel. After about 17 hours without sleep we&rsquore about as awake and alert as if we had a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05%. Woah there - that&rsquos just under the legal driving limit of 0.08%.

And it&rsquos not difficult to notch up that many hours - if you&rsquore out of bed at 6am for a pre-work gym class, then not hitting the hay until 11pm, your brain will be feeling the effects.

The study, co-authored by Dr Colin Espie, a professor of sleep medicine at the University of Oxford, and the Royal Society for Public Health, says that sleep deprivation affects these three cognitive functions the most: our reaction times, our ability to multi-task and our short-term memory. It can even impair our ability to build new memories.

Worryingly, the research suggests that many of us are under-sleeping by at least an hour a night &ndash that&rsquos a whole night&rsquos sleep per week.

As well as affecting our day-to-day wellbeing, a consistent lack of sleep can be a precursor to diabetes, depression, obesity and even cancer. And more than half of the people polled for the study said they felt stressed because of it.

Here&rsquos how you can put sleep at the top of your priority list:

+ Rethink your P.M beauty routine and choose the products that promote slumber

+ Stop tossing and turning and find the best sleeping position for you

+ If you lose an hours sleep don't freak out. Instead discover the hack to fight off mid-afternoon fatigue

Do you have what it takes to be an Irish diplomat?

Is there more to being a diplomat than truly spoiling guests at the ambassadorial residence with pyramids of gold foil-wrapped chocolates?

The Public Appointments Service is currently advertising for the next generation of Irish diplomats. Dozens of “third secretary” positions need to be filled at the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the entry level for diplomats in the Irish diplomatic service.

They are seeking “high calibre graduates” who are “interested in representing Ireland abroad, promoting and protecting the interests and values of our State and its citizens”. People with foreign language skills, and qualifications or experience in international relations, economic and trade promotion, and development cooperation are particularly welcome, according to the ad.

So what can applicants expect if they get the job? We asked three working in different levels of the Irish diplomatic service to tell us what their role involves.

Patrick O’Reilly, assistant chief of protocol

I joined the Department on November 3rd 2000 and I’ve loved every minute since, but if I had to describe my experiences of working as an Irish diplomat in just one word, is would be: “Variety”.

I’ve had the great privilege of working for Ireland in the Netherlands (four years), Slovenia (two years) and Austria (five years). Through my work, I’ve got to visit 30 countries on almost every continent.

Just as there has been a variety of countries, there has been an amazing range of different work to do. I’ve processed passports and visas, and visited Irish people in foreign jails and hospitals. I’ve helped families return the remains of loved ones who have died in tragedies abroad. After major disasters such as 9/11 and the terrorist bombings in Bali, I’ve helped Irish families locate their loved ones.

I’ve had the good fortune to participate in international discussions that have focussed on economics, politics, culture and education.

On a lighter note, I’ve spoken at dog shows (The Netherlands Association of Irish Glen of Imaal Terriers!), schools and Irish dancing shows. I’ve organised St Patrick’s Day festivals and Bloomsday events, and arranged Irish music, poetry and tourism exhibitions.

I’ve had to become an expert on a bewildering array of different topics, including war crimes tribunals and defending human rights and fundamental freedoms, on cyber security and countering illicit drugs and terrorism, on conventional arms control and confidence and security-building measures, on combating corruption and climate change, on UN sanctions regimes and the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy.

In my current role, I help to organise visits to Ireland by high level foreign dignitaries such as presidents, prime ministers and members of royal families, and in this, I’ve got to meet some very interesting (and famous) people. The photo above shows me waiting for the arrival of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex - aka Prince Harry and Meghan Markle - at the Epic Museum in Dublin.

I’ve been lucky to work with and for some outstandingly talented people. In those teams I’ve worked with and sometimes led, I’ve always found my colleagues to be not only clever and intelligent, but also hard-working, good humoured and absolutely determined to do their best to promote and protect Ireland’s interests in the world.

Put simply, the new third secretaries who will start in the Department after this recruitment campaign will join a great team, with amazing career opportunities that literally cover the globe. I couldn’t recommend it enough.

Marianne Bolger, deputy head of mission at the Irish Embassy in Athens

I joined the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade as a third secretary almost 17 years ago, following two years working in the Department Justice and Equality. Over that time, I have worked in four different areas at the Department’s headquarters and I am currently on my third posting abroad here in Athens, having previously served in Stockholm, Sweden and Boston.

I live just outside Athens with my husband, Stephen McNally, and our three children, who are thankfully all up for the many great adventures and sometimes challenges that moving and living abroad can bring.

What I most enjoy about my job is being part of an organisation that strives to make a difference on an international stage, including in areas like reconciliation and peace building, disarmament, human rights and our development aid programme. I also really enjoy the variety of work the role offers, as well as the opportunities to travel and represent Ireland abroad, including looking after our citizens across the world and interacting closely with Irish communities and organisations promoting Ireland abroad.

Coming from a proud tradition of firefighters on my dad’s side of the family, I think that my ability to remain calm under pressure and a desire to help people are attributes that are very useful in my role as a diplomat, and in particular were required in my last role in Dublin where I was assigned to our Consular Division, which included responding to crisis situations abroad.

I have also been involved in a number of exciting projects over the last few years which seek to make the Department more effective, including on improving customer service delivery. I have also contributed to developing the Department’s approach to equality and diversity, to help ensure the staff is fully representative of Irish society, and the Department is an inclusive place to work.

Working with the JFK Library in Boston in 2006 to organise a special exhibit on John F. Kennedy’s visit to Ireland in 1963 was a memorable highlight. More recently, I was especially proud to be part of the Embassy team in February during the state visit by President and Sabina Higgins to Greece, where my role included organising a business event, and a visit to Eleonas Refugee Camp in Athens.

Méabh Ní Drisceoil, third secretary in the Irish embassy in Hungary

I joined the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade as a third secretary in 2014, and have had the opportunity to work at the Department’s headquarters in Dublin, our Embassy in Beijing, and now Budapest.

I am really proud to be an Irish diplomat and to get to represent Ireland in my everyday work - be it organising the Taoiseach’s visit to Hungary last January, hosting cultural events, supporting Irish business, or helping Irish citizens.

I graduated from UCC with a degree in Law and French in 2009 and was eager to study abroad, having spent an Erasmus year in France. I did a Master’s in EU Law at the College of Europe in Bruges, and went on to spend four very happy years working in Brussels in a variety of roles, but was always interested in being a third secretary.

What I love about my job is that no two days are the same. Today, for example, I was helping an Irish boy who had lost his passport while inter-railing. We provide assistance to Irish citizens who get into trouble abroad, which can range from a stolen bag, to a more serious accident. It is a very challenging part of my work, but very rewarding.

This evening I will be hosting our monthly Embassy Book Club. I started this initiative in 2017 and it has been a great success. We only read Irish authors and it’s a fantastic way to bring people together and introduce them to Ireland. This month we read The Heart’s Invisible Furies by John Boyne.

The staff in our Embassies and Consulates are a mix of Irish diplomats, civil servants and local staff members. The local staff are an amazing asset to our work, helping us to navigate local customs and traditions.

Celebrating St Patrick’s Day abroad is always very special. It’s a unique opportunity to promote Irish culture, food, and tourism to a worldwide audience. March is our busiest time of year and here in Budapest there is an annual St Patrick’s Day festival, which includes a parade down Andrassy Avenue, Budapest’s most famous boulevard. I was really honoured to play a part in organising the Greening of the Chain Bridge in 2017 and 2018, a symbolic celebration of Irish-Hungarian relations.

Another important aspect of my job is reporting on political developments in Hungary, and especially anything EU related. At the moment Brexit is an important topic, and I work with the Ambassador to keep the Hungarian government briefed on Ireland’s positions, and the importance of the border to peace and security.

I love languages and I’m currently learning Hungarian - it is difficult but I have a great teacher and it’s nice to be able to exchange some words with my Hungarian colleagues and friends. I speak Irish, French and a little bit of Dutch, and as a third secretary, I have access a wide range of language and other training.

This year I took part in the European Diplomatic Programme, run by the EU for diplomats from all 28 member states. The programme took us to Tallinn, Brussels and Sofia, and I also visited Helsinki for a three-day study visit to learn more about how the Finnish ministry for foreign affairs works. It was really beneficial to meet diplomats from across the EU and to learn from each other.

One of the best things about working in the Department is the people. I’ve made fantastic friends in this job, who are only ever a phone call away when you need some advice or guidance. And of course, there are many advantages to having friends all over the world to visit.

I’d recommend this career to anyone who is up for adventure, hard work, excitement and representing your country abroad.

9 Things Your Brain Fog Is Trying To Tell You

It starts with something you can brush off: the standard Where in this enormous mall parking lot did I leave the damn car?! Happens to everyone, no big deal, a brain fart. Until you realize it wasn't just today at the mall you've somehow spent most of your week feeling as if you've made major decisions behind a smokescreen. As if those brain farts were fogging up the place.

"Brain fog is an inability to really punch through," says Mady Hornig, MD, associate professor of epidemiology at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. "It's a vague sense of what you're trying to retrieve, but you can't focus in on it," she says, "and the effort to harness the thought can be as draining as physical activity." (Discover the 5 best foods for your brain and other cutting-edge natural tips in Prevention's Ageless Brain.)

Remember how impossibly exhausting it was to run your board meeting the last time you came to work sick? (Please, please stop doing that, by the way.) Brain fog is a lot like that, except it persists. A fog can linger for several days, sometimes even weeks.

Its impermanence is the big difference between what we know as brain fog and actual dementia, says rheumatologist Robert Lahita, MD, PhD, chairman of medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center and professor of medicine at Rutgers University in New Jersey. Brain fog might cause you to forget where you parked that car at the mall, but dementia might make it impossible to get there in the first place, he says.

There's not a lot of scientific evidence to explain what's going on when the clouds roll in. Researchers haven't really found a way to measure or test for brain fog like they have dementia. "Everybody knows what it is," Lahita says, "but at the same time, it is so unknown."

If you're sure you've been getting enough sleep&mdashbecause who isn't in a daze when sleep deprived in fact, check out these 10 things that happen to your body when you don't get enough sleep&mdashit's probably a good idea to bring up brain fog with your doctor if you start to feel seriously off. "If you're not feeling like your normal self, that might suggest something's going on," says neuropsychologist Kelly Ryan, PhD, clinical assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Michigan, especially if it lasts for a week or two, Lahita says. At the very least, your doctor can perform tests to reassure you it's not dementia.

People facing a wide variety of diagnoses describe foggy days, as do people who don't seem to have anything physically wrong. Here are a few things brain fog might be telling you:

You won't be tampon shopping for long.
And here you thought only your hormones would change! A series of hazy days in the mental forecast could be a sign menopause is near. Midlife brain fog is very real: A University of Rochester and University of Illinois study showed that women between the ages of 40 and 60 have trouble staying focused on tricky tasks and stumble with something called working memory, which helps you do things like adding up a bunch of numbers in your head.

Hormones shape the brain, Lahita says, so it would make sense for vascillating estrogen levels to cause shifts in cognition, too. Which likely sounds familiar to anyone who not-so-fondly recalls "pregnancy brain." In one small study, researchers found that having a bun in the oven makes what's called spatial memory&mdashwhich helps you do things like remember where your glasses are (hint: probably on your head)&mdasha challenge, possibly because high levels of hormones impact neurons in the memory-focused part of the brain called the hippocampus.

Your mood swings are actually a big deal.

Ryan's recent research found that the fuzzy thinking cited by people with depression or bipolar disorder actually shows up on brain scans. In the study, women with these conditions struggled more with a cognitive test than healthy women did. The same area of the brain was active in all the women (since it's known to pitch in when you're taking a test), but women with depression or bipolar disorder had unusual amounts of activity (either too much or too little) going on in that region, she says. Not only does that mean bipolar disorder and depression may not be as different as scientists once thought, Ryan says, but also that "at a neurobiological level, it could be that the brain works differently" in mental health patients.

With the assistance of certain meds or therapies, you might be able to address some of this difficulty focusing or concentrating, Ryan says, although some people with depression or bipolar disorder do still report they don't feel as sharp even when their mood feels stable, she says.

You're stressing your brain into a frenzy.

At the very least, know what really sets you off, whether it's the overflowing laundry hamper or your oversharing coworker, because zeroing in on what triggers stress could help you curb the fog, Hornig says. "Identify potential patterns, then eliminate certain factors causing issues to feel more stressful." If that sounds daunting in itself, talking it through with a therapist might help you put the pieces together, Hornig says.

You filled a new script.

Is it just us or are those lists of possible side effects getting longer and longer with every new prescription we fill? Chances are you haven't read to the bottom, so allow us to offer a spoiler: Certain antibiotics, incontinence meds, and even blood pressure pills can cause mental clouding, especially in older patients. Of course, there are also some obvious ones to keep in mind, including antidepressants, painkillers, and allergy meds. If you think one of yours is causing detrimental fog, talk to the doc who prescribed it about your alternatives.

You're eating for your belly, not your brain.

Foods like fatty fish, leafy greens, and (hooray!) dark chocolate are all known for building some mental muscle. If only it were as easy as grabbing a chocolate bar whenever you're feeling foggy and watching the clouds suddenly lift! But there is some evidence, Lahita says, that obesity ups risk of cognitive decline, meaning you can add "preventing brain fog" to your list of reasons to stick to eating clean.

If you want to get specific, make sure you're not skimping on iron, an essential nutrient for memory and attention. In asmall study of college-aged women, eating a protein-rich lunch for 4 months upped levels of iron in their blood and improved their brain power. And quit with the binges already&mdashthere's a reason it's called a food coma.

Cancer treatment is taking its toll.
Some cancer patients report feeling a mental cloudiness in response to chemotherapy treatment, not-so-affectionately dubbed "chemo brain." It might result in forgetfulness, trouble concentrating, disorganization, and a hard time finding the right words to finish a thought, according to the American Cancer Society. The ACS recommends the same old memory tricks you've heard countless times: Eat a balance of nutritious foods, exercise as regularly as you can during treatment, establish daily routines, leave all sorts of handwritten and iPhone notes and reminders for yourself, and, perhaps most important, ask for help. Of course, that's only so comforting, considering chemo brain was shown to linger for as long as 5 years in a small study of blood cancer patients. Luckily, in most cases, Lahita says, it's likely to lift after a few weeks.

You've got an undiagnosed health concern to address.
From the autoimmune to the neurological, brain fog crops up in people with a wide range of diseases, like fibromyalgia, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and more. If you've been battling prolonged brain fog and it's not related to your sleep schedule or your last feeding frenzy, talk to your doctor about what other symptoms you might have overlooked, like joint or muscle pain, numbness or tingling, headaches, and loss of coordination.

Chronic fatigue syndrome&mdashnow called myalgic encephalomyelitis, so we'll go with ME/CFS&mdashis a highly misunderstood condition, but one in which people often complain of feelings of brain fog. Earlier this year, Hornig's study found differences in the brain fluid of people with ME/CFS that might help explain the mental cloudiness so common in the disease. Immune-system proteins called cytokines were reduced in ME/CFS patients, she says, "almost like the immune system has exhausted itself." Science isn't totally clear on why these changes might lead to brain fog, but Hornig, also the director of translational research at the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health, says there are receptors in the brain for the cytokines, which are closely related to some of the receptors for hormones and other brain chemicals. This complex interplay between all of our wiring up there could be making ME/CFS patients foggy, she says.

It's time to say good-bye to gluten (sorry).

There's a lot more to celiac disease than belly bloat after eating a bagel. People with the autoimmune disease can do lasting damage to their small intestines by eating gluten&mdashand accumulate dense brain fog in the process. The good news for people with an actual celiac diagnosis (aka people who aren't ditching gluten to be trendy) is that going gluten-free really does help, and not just by keeping you out of the bathroom: In a small study of celiac patients who went G-free, brain fog lifted significantly. Before adopting the new diet, they scored as poorly on certain cognitive tests as if they had been jetlagged or legally drunk. A year later, things were blissfully back to normal.

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Also See:

    The United Nations Organisation (UNO) was founded in 1945 after World War II. The main aims of UNO are to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations. Also.
    Specialized agencies of the United Nations Specialized agencies of the UN are seventeen in number as per the terms of the UN Charter. They are autonomous organisations set up to deal with specific issues.
    UN General Assembly and Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) have created some international organizations to deal with specific areas of trade and development, relief and welfare, environment, research and.

5 Conclusions

In addition to first-time donors, some states which, in earlier decades, gave gifts to the organisation have made further donations in later years, indicating the ongoing relevance to UN members of this form of visual diplomacy. 26 As pointed out by Costas M. Constantinou: ‘The visual plays a crucial role in diplomacy’ and has traditionally ‘figured as part of the dignified milieu or the ceremonial trappings of power that support the linguistic environment of diplomacy’. 27 Specific to the UN context, Constantinou has written that official diplomatic gifts ‘supposedly reflect on the brand image of both the organisation and the member state, amplifying the principles that guide their action’. 28

Nonetheless, Iver B. Neumann cautions that there is ‘no guarantee that fielding something that is expected to be visually effective will actually prove effective, for the simple reason that exactly what is visually pleasing varies so widely from polity to polity’. He adds that the visual is therefore ‘a precarious modality in diplomacy’. 29

Viewed objectively, diplomatic gift-giving to the UN may appear to be non-reciprocal, in that the donor does not receive a tangible gift of equivalent value from the organisation. Yet it is clear that a significant majority of states have concluded that worthwhile benefits nonetheless accrue from this practice. Evidence of this is found in the statistic that more than 140 of the UN’s 193 Member States have given at least one gift. However, the fact that approximately 50 countries have not done so suggests that gift-giving to the UN is regarded by the diplomatic community as optional, and not essential to developing a respected profile at the organisation.

Within the broad range of cultural activities carried out by Member States, it is virtually impossible to isolate the impact of a particular gift. Nonetheless, decor and furnishings given to the UN may have a longer-lasting effect than an expensive reception or concert which, once over, may soon be forgotten. Norway’s donation of the Security Council Chamber, and its later renovation, have been sources of enduring prestige. These were highlighted as part of Norway’s campaign for a 2021-2022 seat on the Council, and in fact Norway’s campaign logo was the stylised heart of the chamber’s decorative fabric.

In some instances, gift-giving to the UN can be an equaliser. A small state may donate a relatively inexpensive handicraft which, because of its uniqueness and workmanship, may gain more positive attention than another state’s costlier gift. One fairly modest donation which is widely appreciated comes from the island of Palau (population 17,900). It is a 1.5-meter wooden eel which narrates a story through intricate carvings on both sides and has been deemed worthy of display in the high-traffic area outside the Trusteeship Council.

In other instances, gift-giving can accentuate inequalities. The Capital Master Plan renovations created opportunities for redecorating the Delegates Lounge, the Security Council Consultations Room and an adjacent area, but these projects fell well outside the reach of smaller states and rather were financed, respectively, by the Netherlands, the Russian Federation and Turkey.

Overall, it would be too narrow to conclude that states evaluate their own, and others’, gifts to the UN solely on the basis of direct national gain. Each gift to the organisation adds to the collective backdrop of the daily formal and informal conversations which take place there. As Michael Adlerstein, chief architect of the Capital Master Plan, has observed: ‘The delegates enjoy the collection. It is their art, and it is their house’. 30

4. Enema

Ever drank an ass-load of booze? I hope you haven't done it like this. It's called butt-chugging, and it's sad that it's common enough to have a nickname. It is, essentially, an alcohol enema. It's rather popular with the not-yet-21 college scene because you won't have any liquor on your breath. Or so they think. Actually, because the alcohol goes into your blood stream, the vapor comes out in your breath just the same. Sorry, kids.

The appeal, for a practice that involves lying flat on your back, knees in the air, with a funnel shoved up your ass? The mucous membranes up your poop-chute are extremely porous, allowing for rapid absorption. Yay! I got drunk so fast! Oops, I'm dead. No, really.

In 2004, this is how a gentleman in Texas accidentally killed himself. He was a big drinker, but had to stop drinking, because of a throat condition (probably due to the drinking). So he started butt-chugging. On May 21, 2004, he consumed two 1.5 liter bottles of sherry. That's 3 liters of wine, up his ass. Said gentleman passed out with much of the booze still inside his anal cavity, and so he continued to absorb it. He died with a blood-alcohol content (BAC) of .47 percent—about six times the legal limit for intoxication. On the bright side, he won a Darwin Award .

Vintage Slang Terms For Being Drunk Are Hilarious A Century Later

Do you think that people didn't get wasted back in ye olden tymes?

You're right. But they did occasionally drink enough beer, wine and liquor to get loaded, topheavy, boryeyed, moory and podgy.

All are listed in an amazing sidebar of synonyms for "drunk" published in the St. Louis Republic on June 30, 1901. I happened upon it while trawling through "Chronicling America," a fantastic online archive of historical newspapers administered by the Library of Congress, and I haven't stopped LOLing since.

It's unclear how many of the 166 terms and words connoting drunkenness were actually in regular use back in 1901 -- some may be fanciful inventions of the newspaper's staff. (For comparison's sake, the usually-definitive Roget's International Thesaurus contains a mere 121 synonyms for "intoxicated.) But regardless of their provenance, we'd strongly support their return to the vernacular in 2013.

Here is the full list, with our favorite terms in bold and images of drunkenness from centuries past interspersed throughout.

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What Happens When Americans Can Finally Exhale

The researchers grouped the respondents into four clusters, which they named with delightful pop-culture references:

1) The Hemingway:

Based on the novelist’s storied imperviousness to alcohol, this category included individuals who behave roughly the same drunk as they do sober—at least when it comes to temperament. When sober, they are roughly average across the five personality metrics. When drunk, their levels of intellect and conscientiousness (or self-discipline) change less than they do for other people.

2) Mary Poppins:

These people are very agreeable when sober, and they stay very agreeable when drunk. Their levels of conscientiousness and intellect also decrease little.

3) The Nutty Professor:

Universal Pictures / Getty Images

These people become far less conscientious after a few drinks. Most notably, they are introverted when sober, but the life of the party when drunk. (The researchers didn’t measure whether they play all the other characters at said party, though).

Named for the the sinister alter-ego of Dr. Jekyll, these people reported big decreases in conscientiousness, intellect, and agreeableness when they are intoxicated. They “reported a tendency of being particularly less responsible, less intellectual, and more hostile when under the influence of alcohol than they are when they are sober, as well as relative to members of the other groups.”

There was no correlation between the clusters and the frequency or amount of drinking. But the researchers did notice something surprising when they looked at the consequences the drinkers reported.

Members of the Mr. Hyde cluster experienced the most problems related to their drinking habits, followed by the Hemingways. Interestingly, the Mr. Hyde group had the most women in it.

The rigor of these categories leaves something to be desired—they were somewhat arbitrarily constructed based on the recalled observations of a relatively small number of college students. And the clusters obviously don’t capture all the possible permutations of drunk behavior. (Let’s hear it for the sleepy drunks who effusively make impossible-to-keep brunch plans.)

But it’s significant that the people who change the most and are the least fun to be around when drunk are also the most likely to have alcohol-related issues, like blackouts or fights. That suggests “drunk personalities” could be clues to the trajectory and nature of drinking problems.

Alcoholism is notoriously hard to pin down. If you drink a little every day, is that a problem? What about nothing all week, but 10 beers on Saturday? The study authors hope that assessments of “drunk personalities,” more than being a novelty, could eventually be used by clinicians to help problem drinkers get to the root of their troubles:

Essentially, the assessment of clients’ unique ‘drunk personality profiles’ could provide a personalized link between their drinking episodes and the problems that result from them, and open the door for a tailored discussion about how their drinking, personality expression, and drunken behaviors are intertwined.

More studies need to be performed before that can happen, but this one is a start. At the very least, if someone excuses bad drunken behavior with a simple “I’m a mean drunk,” these findings could be a form of validation—and a cause for reflection.

23 Ways Sex Changes When You're Drunk or High

There's no question that taking drugs or drinking before you have sex has an effect on the, ahem, activities that follow. Surely this is something you've discussed among friends, but to give your next conversation about the nuances of sex under the influence a bit more weight, teams of researchers from New York University and Johns Hopkins University published two separate studies on the topic in the Archives of Sexual Behavior and Psychopharmacology.

The first study in Archives of Sexual Behavior is an in-depth, qualitative study that focuses on the details of how marijuana and alcohol affect sex, and followed the sex lives of 24 participants &mdash 12 men, 12 women, all heterosexual &mdash to glean information. The second from Psychopharmacology focuses on cocaine's effect on sex based on controlled administration of the drug to 12 participants who didn't know whether they were taking the drug or a placebo during the study.

Some of the surface findings seem cool and fun &mdash people are more talkative! Sex lasts longer! People want to have sex more! Yay! But among the findings are the negatives you might expect: total memory loss from blacking out, feelings of regret, and people left wondering whether or not they'd used a condom. Some participants also discuss sexual encounters between two people who were clearly very drunk &mdash which, legally, is a criminal act. (You have to be able to give consent, and you can't give consent if you're drunk.) So maybe don't use these studies as an excuse to try sex under the influence of every drug under the sun, especially illegal ones. Definitely don't. That being said: Here are 23 ways sex changes when you're high or when you're drunk.

1. Drinking makes you more outgoing and more likely to connect with potential partners. No surprise here.

2. But drinking led to more people choosing partners they may not normally pick. Palamar's team found a lot of negatives associated with being drunk or high before sex, but one of the biggest ones is that people who'd been drinking reported being more likely to choose an "atypical partner" or experience "post-sex regret." People commonly complained of things like seeing a partner "in the daylight" for the first time or feeling like they woke up to a "different person" after hooking up drunk.

3. People report feeling sexier after smoking or drinking. But especially after drinking. From the study: "One female stated she felt so attractive on alcohol that she feels she is the 'diva of the party,' yet another states she felt like the 'sexiest woman on the planet' while high on marijuana." Here's what one participant, a 32-year-old woman, had to say about how the two experiences compare: "When I'm drunk, I'm drunk, so I'm like, 'I'm hot.' Then with weed, I usually feel more sexy . and happy. You usually feel a little sexier, a little bit more turned on and ready to have sex, instead of being self-conscious."

4. Sometimes, smoking makes people feel more insecure. One man from the study said that drinking helps "numb" his insecurities, but, in his experience, smoking can sometimes increase his body image issues.

5. Smoking tends to make people clam up. As in, they are quieter than normal and a bit less social.

6. Cocaine use increases sexual desire. And the more cocaine in a person's system, the higher their sexual desire seemed to go.

7. But cocaine also makes users more impatient. Which correlates to them being less likely to use a condom if one isn't readily available. Aside from being illegal, this is obviously also extremely dangerous!

8. Alcohol turns people into social butterflies. A phrase some people used was that they were "down for anything" when they're drunk. One 18-year-old male participant said, "I don't feel as outgoing [on marijuana]. I don't want to hold a conversation and stuff like that. Whereas if I'm drunk, I talk to anybody." Another participant, a 19-year-old woman, echoed this sentiment, but added that marijuana makes her "laugh more, and I guess when you laugh, it makes people want to socialize with you."

9. Smoking makes you pickier about who you'll hang out with. In the cases where marijuana did make people want to talk more, they said they tended to be more selective of who they wanted to be around at the time. "When I'm high, I'm a people person, but I'm selective," said a 35-year-old male participant. "When I drink, I don't mind being in a crowd of people. There are times I'll be high, and I'll go to a party, and I'll pick this guy or this girl. But when I'm drunk, I'm just going to mingle with everybody."

10. Alcohol leads to more "aggressive" behavior than marijuana does. Women, especially, said that men seemed to be more domineering when they're drunk, and that doesn't necessarily happen when they're high. "When there's drinking involved, guys seem to get more belligerent and crazy, and get this weird aggressive energy," said one 31-year-old female participant.

11. People are hornier when they're drunk versus when they're high. Generally, people said they're just sort of happy to do whatever when they're high. But when they're drunk, sex is the thing they want to do the most. "Maybe I'm looking for [sex] more if I were drunk, whereas when I'm high, I'm happy doing other things," one 31-year-old woman said. "Sex is great. Watching a movie is great. Resting's great. But when I'm drunk, fucking would be great."

12. The feeling of being willing to "do anything" people feel when they're drunk is different between men and women. This is a crucial difference, and one of only a few gendered differences in the study's findings. While women tend to discuss this attitude in terms of being more "adventurous," men compared the feeling alcohol gives them to "boldness" or "confidence." One man said, "It feels like you get a lot more primal [on alcohol]," and said it's like a feeling of needing something and doing whatever to get it.

13. Marijuana's "forbiddenness" facilitates intimacy between two people. Because it's still illegal in most places, participants in the study said the taboo of smoking weed with someone else in private is an intimate act. "When I go on a date, if it went well, I'd be like, 'Want to come back to my place and smoke weed?'" said one 31-year-old woman. "That's a great transition into the intimacy of being at my house. 'Let's do something a little bit taboo together.' And then it's like you're sharing a sensation that's a little bit forbidden."

14. People don't lower their standards when they're high, but they do find people more attractive in general. While alcohol led a lot of people to sleep with people they didn't necessarily find attractive, some said they found their partners "more attractive" when they were high. "When I'm high . the people I'm attracted to, I'm not at all attracted to sober," a 22-year-old female participant said. "They should be called 'weed goggles,' because it's much worse on marijuana than on alcohol."

15. Alcohol makes you forget things you did. Obviously. A lot of participants said they couldn't remember sexual interactions they had when alcohol was involved. As the study notes, "This often led to reclusiveness, and some participants even reported being 'cold' to their partner in the morning." Clearly, this is dangerous, and one of many reasons to be super careful about having sex when you've been drinking.

16. Having sex when you're high once will make you want to have more sex when you're high. A man and woman from the study both separately reported a desire "for more sex after the first sexual episode on marijuana." But people who have had drunken sex don't necessarily crave more drunken sex.

17. Having sex after you drink leads to a lot of regret. There's a whole section in the study dedicated to feelings of regret following sex. "The most commonly reported feeling after sex on alcohol was regret," the study reads. This comes from a combination of the fact that alcohol led participants to sleep with people they didn't find attractive, concerns about pregnancy, and completely forgetting about people they'd had sex with. "When you're drunk, it's more regrets or I-wish-I-didn't-do-that type of thing," said one 32-year-old woman. "Definitely had times where I didn't use a condom. Pulling-out method, one-night stands . Just didn't feel good about that at all."

18. For women, having sex drunk leads to increased feelings of shame. Chalk this up to a terrible societal double standard, but women in the study commonly expressed feelings of shame for allowing themselves to have sex with someone they felt they wouldn't have sex with sober. "When you're drunk, you might see somebody and be like, damn, he looks mad good," one 25-year-old woman said. "Then you wake up, you're like, oh, what the hell did I just do?"

19. But men said they just regret the women they pursued while they were drunk. Fun! So, while women are feeling bad about themselves for having sex, men tend to feel bad about who they had sex with. "Oh, so much regret for alcohol," said one 20-year-old man. "Sometimes I hook up with girls I wouldn't normally have while sober."

20. People have sex longer when they've been drinking. Because of a feeling of desensitization after drinking, participants reported "prolonged intercourse" when alcohol is involved. Some people said they really enjoyed this, but one woman pointed out that this can become painful after a while.

21. Sex while you're high feels much more intense and compassionate. While being high warps the participants' sense of time (making 15 minutes feel like an hour in some cases), many said the orgasm they experience during high sex is more intense than a drunken or sober orgasm. They also said the orgasm tends to come much quicker. One woman also said she feels "very sensual" when she's high.

22. Both alcohol and weed lead to sexual dysfunction. Men said alcohol made it more difficult to get hard, and some women said weed makes it harder to get "naturally lubricated."

23. Some people can't focus enough to orgasm at all when they're high. Some women said they just couldn't quite get there when they were high, simply because it was too hard to focus.

This post was originally published in 2016 and has been updated.

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