Drinking Three Pints of Beer Can Slow Brain Functions By 20 Percent, Study Says
A new study finds that those who drank more than three pints of beer had slower cognitive functions than those who abstained
A new study found that those who routinely binge drink make their brains work harder to keep pace.
In news that shocked no one, a new study has found that drinking beer is not good for cognitive functions, but just how many it takes to slow your brain down may surprise you.
According to the study by the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain, it only takes three pints of beer or three medium-sized glass of wine to slow the brain by 20 percent, according to Inquisitr.
The study tested binge drinkers, or those who drank two pints or more, against those who did not drink by asking those in the two groups to react to flashing red symbols. The study was held over a three year period. While there was no noticeable difference in the reaction times between the two groups, researchers found that those who drank had to work much harder to gain the same level of attentiveness.
The study discovered that non-drinkers brain activity peaked around 18 microvolts while drinkers peaked at 22 microvolts three years later, according to Inquisitr. The researchers said that drinking creates this discrepancy and affects working memory and attention.
When You Drink Vodka Every Night, This Is What Happens To Your Body
Ah, vodka. After a long day at work or at a particularly stressful event, there are few things more refreshing than a cold vodka cocktail. After all, a serving of vodka delivers a nice punch of alcohol to your system, relaxing you and getting the dopamine flowing in your brain. Suddenly you're less worried than you were before and enjoying the warmth of the beverage as it spreads through your body.
In addition to those properties, vodka is quite the versatile alcoholic beverage, rendering it a good selection for pairing with mixers for a tasty drink that packs a punch. And for the most part, vodka is fairly affordable, with plenty of brands selling bottles that don't taste all that bad, even without a mixer that masks the alcoholic flavor.
So are you a person who likes to drink vodka every night? Are you wondering what the effects might be on your body and its systems and whether they're good or bad? Read on to discover exactly what happens to your body when you drink vodka every night.
Alcohol May Cause You to Develop Irregular Heartbeats
You know that drinking too much alcohol is bad. But even drinking in moderation can be hard on your body — including your heart.
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy
Some research suggests that having as little as one to three alcoholic drinks each day may increase your risk for atrial fibrillation, the most common type of irregular heart rhythm. Afib causes symptoms including lack of energy, dizziness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations and chest pain, and if left untreated can lead to serious complications.
The link between alcohol and Afib is worth noting for people with and without the condition, says cardiologist Bruce Wilkoff, MD.
People who have Afib have long been told to avoid alcohol because it’s known to worsen symptoms. Past research has also linked heavy drinking with a greater chance that someone who doesn’t have Afib will develop it. (The term “holiday heart syndrome” was coined to describe the experience of having heart flutters while binge drinking.)
“What’s different about newer studies is that more modest amounts of alcohol intake seem to also correlate with developing atrial fibrillation,” Dr. Wilkoff says.
It’s not just heavy drinking that can affect the heart
In one recent study, researchers at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden followed more than 79,000 men and women between the ages of 45 and 83. After 12 years, the researchers looked closely at the effects different types of alcohol had on these people.
They found an increased risk for atrial fibrillation in people who drank one to three glasses of wine and liquor per day. They did not find such a relationship with drinking beer.
They also calculated that a person’s risk for developing Afib increased 8% with each additional alcoholic drink per day they consumed.
In another recent study, researchers found that people who drank moderate amounts of alcohol frequently had a greater risk of Afib than those who occasionally drank a lot of alcohol in one sitting, or binge drank.
Moderation is key
Dr. Wilkoff says more studies are needed in this area.
While a lot of research has been done already exploring the impacts of alcohol on the heart, the findings have painted a complex picture. For example, despite the findings about moderate drinking and Afib risk, many studies have found lower rates of cardiovascular disease among people who drink moderately. Yet daily drinking that becomes excessive can increase your risk for high blood pressure, stroke and, importantly, obesity, which also increases your risk for Afib.
As a general rule, the American Heart Association recommends a maximum of one drink per day for women and two for men for people who do not have Afib.
“Alcohol in moderation — meaning not every day and in small amounts – is probably OK,” Dr. Wilkoff says. “But if you notice Afib symptoms, stop. Not drinking may potentially stop the Afib and prevent any long-term damage.”
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy
If you drink whiskey every night instead of other alcohol, you'll consume less calories and carbs
For those alcohol enthusiasts who aren't looking to gain a beer belly, whiskey is a great choice. It contains no carbohydrates and virtually no sugar, as noted by Medical Daily. It also contains the least amount of calories compared to beer and most wines, according to Medline Plus.
Some studies have even suggested that drinking whiskey can help a person to lose weight. According to Harvard University, "moderate drinking might be especially beneficial if you have low HDL that just won't budge upward with diet and exercise." HDL is the good type of cholesterol, and it helps to remove "excess cholesterol" in a person's bloodstream to keep a person's body in better shape (via Mayo Clinic).
However, keep in mind that adding any type of mixer to the whiskey can drive up your calorie count. "If you're looking for a lower calorie alternative, avoid the flavored vodkas and spiced rums and go for the original or 'plain' option offered," Caroline Cederquist, M.D., told GQ. So, when you order a Jack and Coke — maybe hold the Coke!
The Effects of One Beer
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), one 12-ounce serving of beer contains roughly the same amount of alcohol as a 5-ounce glass of wine or a 1.5-ounce shot of hard liquor. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that men consume up to two drinks a day and women consume up to one drink a day.
The USDA says that one 12-ounce can or bottle of regular beer provides 155 calories, almost 2 grams of protein, almost 13 grams of carbohydrates and 0 grams of fat. It also provides a number of trace vitamins and minerals, including 14 milligrams of calcium, 22 milligrams of magnesium, 50 milligrams of phosphorus, 97 milligrams of potassium and 14 milligrams of sodium.
One 12-ounce can or bottle of light beer provides 104 calories, almost 1 gram of protein, 6 grams of carbohydrates and 0 grams of fat. Vitamin and mineral content includes 14 milligrams of calcium, 18 milligrams of magnesium, 43 milligrams of phosphorus, 76 milligrams of potassium and 14 milligrams of sodium.
Drinking one beer a day can easily be worked into your planned calorie intake. The effects of one beer vary from person to person. Some people may feel tipsy or even drunk after one single drink, while others with a higher tolerance will feel entirely normal.
If you feel tipsy or drunk after drinking a beer, you should not drive, even if your blood alcohol content is below the legal limit. Plus, alcohol can interfere with certain medications to cause potential side effects, so always research any interactions before you drink when taking medicine.
Just how much damage is your drinking doing to your liver? Three readers took the test
Are you are in the middle of Dry January after Christmas party excess? Or simply cutting down on drinking through the year’s most depressing month?
If so you may have given some thought to the damage the booze has done to your liver.
Liver disease is the fifth biggest killer in the UK and the only major cause of death still increasing. As such it is regarded as a growing epidemic.
And alcohol consumption is one of the main culprits.
A recent BBC report revealed that we drink 41% more than the monthly average at Christmas.
So it’s not surprising that after the festive binge, countless people have gone sober for this month.
Many people, though, remain unaware of the damage excess drinking can do to the liver, whose functions include clearing toxins, storing fat and sugar and releasing them when the body needs energy.
“Alcohol is a toxin and harmful to the body,” explains Dr Shahid Khan, consultant hepatologist at the London Clinic.
“It’s particularly dangerous for the liver because it metabolises alcohol, breaking it down into the constituent parts. They are toxic and damaging.”
Drinking above the Department of Health’s recommended safe limit (21 units weekly for men, 14 for women, with a small glass of wine or half a pint equating to one unit) can cause liver scarring (fibrosis).
The liver stores fat as well as energy and with 30% of us overweight, more people are building up excess fat in the organ, resulting in similar damage to that wreaked by alcohol.
Liver disease is a silent killer showing no symptoms until well advanced.
“Scarring progresses gradually over the years, depending on how much the person drinks and their genetic make-up. It can lead to cirrhosis, the extreme version of fibrosis,” says Dr Khan.
“There are thousands of people walking around unaware they have got cirrhosis. The first they’ll know about it is when it’s so serious that the liver stops working.
“Then symptoms like jaundice, vomiting blood and fluid collecting in the abdomen and legs begin. By then it’s often too late.”
Early detection is paramount. “Given the chance, the liver has a remarkable capacity to heal when injured – scarred tissue can disappear,” says Dr Khan.
How much do you drink?
6000+ VOTES SO FAR
To create awareness of liver health, the clinic provides an extensive liver MoT, using a Fibroscan, the only liver scanner able to gauge fibrosis and measure how fatty a patient’s liver is by checking its stiffness.
The scan is performed by a specialist liver nurse who places a probe on the skin over the liver. An ultrasound wave is released which hits the liver and bounces back.
A normal liver is like a jelly but if the signal returns quickly, it shows the liver is stiff.
Fibroscans aren’t available in all hospitals but their use is already paying dividends at specialist units and leading private hospitals.
“Before, a liver biopsy was the only way of establishing how much liver scarring was present. But it’s invasive and can cause bleeding,” says Dr Khan.
“The fibroscan is painless, takes five minutes and can tell us if there is scarring without the need of a biopsy.”
We asked three readers, all regular drinkers, to undertake a Fibroscan and a blood test at the London Clinic then Dr Khan analysed the results.
- The London Clinic’s MoT package includes a Fibroscan, blood test and consultation with a hepatologist. Costs start from £410. londonclinic.co.uk
Three readers had their liver&aposs scanned - the results
Hannah Ashleigh, 30, is a PR account manager living in London with her partner Tom
Height: 5ft 3
Weight: 8st 12lb
Units per week: 50
Hannah: Before my liver MOT, I was drinking a glass or two of wine most nights and up to a bottle on Fridays – maybe a few beers too.
If I went out on Saturdays I could drink around five gin and tonics and a few shots.
Pouring a glass of wine when I got home from work was my way of unwinding. Stresses of London living plus a busy career also influenced my drinking habits.
At weekends, it was about letting my hair down after a crazy week.
Drinking had become a habit and I was consuming too much.
Clearly, there were dangers continuing this trend and I worried that the amount I’d already drunk may have affected my health.
Dr Kahn: Hannah has a very busy, stressful job and has slipped into the habit of drinking most days. This is quite common among people her age looking to further their career.
She was drinking nearly twice the recommended limit and at that level would be at risk of cirrhosis, were she to continue.
Fortunately, her Fibroscan was normal. She’s slim, fit and although drinking heavily, it’s only been for about five to 10 years, probably not long enough to cause irreparable damage.
Hannah’s verdict: It was amazing when the results confirmed no damage. Carrying on at the same rate, however, would almost certainly mean future problems.
Reducing my alcohol intake won’t be easy but I’m determined to alter my lifestyle – I’m not 21 any more!
Tom and I are doing Dry January. After that, we’ll try our hardest not to drink Monday-Thursday or binge.
Another New Year resolution is to exercise more. So 2015 will be about running and workouts in the house three times a week.
Although I eat well and don’t need to lose weight, I intend to stop skipping breakfast.
And if I have a hangover, I eat things like pizza and chips. That needs to change too.
NHS administrator Cheryl Garcia, 37, lives in Cheshunt, Herts, with her husband, Matthew, and children, Alfie, nine, and Brooke, six
Height: 5 ft 6
Units per week: 32
Cheryl: I was apprehensive about having the scan but wanted to find out if excess drinking in my 20s had caused any damage.
Back then I’d go clubbing and drink all sorts – cider, lager, wine and shorts. Now I’m in my late 30s I don’t drink heavily but still above the recommended limit.
Most nights I have two glasses of wine but on Saturdays I’ll pop down a local social club and have six halves of lager and two glasses of wine.
Weekends are for socialising with friends and family but drinking in the week helps me unwind and it’s become a habit.
Dr Khan: Despite having drunk heavily during her 20s, Cheryl’s Fibroscan result was normal while the blood test showed no signs of liver irritation.
This highlights the liver’s capacity to heal. But if she persists at these levels she would be at risk of cirrhosis.
Fortunately, she’s planning to reduce her weekly volume.
Cheryl’s verdict: Although my results didn’t show any scarring there is a high possibility that it will occur if I continue drinking like I am.
This has taught me the need to give my liver a rest with two or three dry days a week. It’s been a wake-up call. With two young kids I need to be more sensible and take control of my alcohol intake.
Thankfully the blood test confirmed there wasn’t any fatty tissue. I try eating a diet containing plenty of fruit and veg. As for exercise, I walk a lot and try to keep fit.
I intend reducing the volume I drink and introduce two or three dry days a week. I feel confident I can achieve that.
Martin Payne, 47, is an accountant who lives in Windsor, Berks, with his partner, Trudy
Height: 5 ft 11
Weight: 13st 8lb
Units per week: 40-50
Martin: I started drinking upon moving in with Trudy and socialising more. But it’s only the last five years that I’ve reached my current consumption level.
I drink wine, cider and beer. If it’s wine, I can manage a bottle in an evening. If I’m on beer, it can be two pints at home and up to four in social gatherings.
I drink most nights so get through around two bottles of wine per week and up to 10 pints.
Drinking helps me relax. Generally, it’s a drink with a meal and then a case of carry on drinking! I know it’s time to stop when I become fuzzy-headed.
The fact our local pub is three doors away doesn’t help or that a wine merchant is close by. We even bought two extra fridges: one for wine, the other beer – and they’re usually full.
Dr Khan: Martin is drinking enough to be at risk of cirrhosis over the next 10-20 years if he continues. He doesn’t have significant scarring yet, probably because he hasn’t been drinking excessively for very long.
Being overweight means he’s also an increased risk of developing fatty liver disease.
But his plan to lose a stone plus reduce the amount that he drinks is probably all he needs to do.
Martin’s verdict: Yes, I’m drinking too much now but, thankfully, this has revealed I haven’t been indulging at this level long enough to cause real damage.
There is a little scarring but not enough to worry about presently.
As for fatty liver, it’s slightly above where the doctor wants it to be but I intend losing a stone, which will probably fix it.
I didn’t realise that you don’t get symptoms with liver problems until it’s virtually too late – that shocked me.
I’ll try to reduce the units I consume and introduce dry days. This will help reduce my weight because alcohol is high in calories.
I enjoy drinking so it’ll be hard keeping within the recommended limits. I have 40-50 units a week. If I can reduce that to 20-30 plus lose weight, I’ll be pleased.
Like many of us, my job is stressful and it probably always will be. As my dry spell wore on I realised that the glass or two of wine shared with my wife over dinner was actually a way of dealing with a stressful day.
It turns out that alcohol is a terrible antidote for stress and anxiety. Recent research shows that, for some people, being stressed reduces the impact of alcohol resulting in more drinking to achieve the desired result. Drinking causes short-term relaxation but reduces our ability to manage stress. For me, abstinence made me better at dealing with and responding to stress at work and at home. I was harder to rattle and recovered more quickly.
What are the benefits of drinking water for skin?
It’s touted as an integral part of our beauty routine, but how does water improve the largest organ in the body? ‘Our skin is a thirsty organ – it contains about 72% water,’ explains Helen. ‘Many beauty therapists and dermatologists regard good hydration as important to help keep the skin’s elasticity, softness, tone and appearance. So, as well as eating well, to keep your skin looking youthful, make sure you’re taking on board enough fluid. Opting for water means that you’re not adding sugar or calories to your daily diet, while maintaining good levels of hydration,’ she says.
‘A healthy fluid intake also balances oil levels in skin to avoid greasiness. And it ensures that the skin is adequately defended against sun and wind damage. You’ll still need your sun cream, though,’ adds Carrie. In fact, drinking enough water can even help skin conditions like cracked heels.
Alongside exercise and a calorie-controlled diet, drinking water may help with weight loss. (Credit: Getty)
7 Things That Happened When I Quit Drinking for a Month
Morning workouts no longer felt like #strugglecity.
Early a.m. sweat sessions have never been easy for me—I need to have everything prepped and ready the night before so I can roll out of bed and into my gear before my brain realizes what&aposs happening. But thankfully they became less torturous when I quit drinking for a month. Sure, this could be a residual kick from New Year&aposs resolution motivation, but it&aposs more likely because I slept better. Like, way better. Not only did I find myself ready to fall asleep earlier, but I didn&apost wake up in the middle of the night or feel groggy when my alarm sounded. Science says that&aposs because I wasn&apost increasing the alpha wave patterns in my brain—something that happens when you&aposre awake but resting. or drinking before bed. The reason that&aposs bad: It leads to lighter sleep and seriously messes with the quality of zzz&aposs. Which in turn makes me want to throw my phone across the room the second the alarm goes off (or just hit the snooze a lot, if I&aposm feeling less violent that morning).
It was easier to stick to my healthy eating habits.
While I didn&apost lose any weight (which is fine, as that&aposs not one of my fitness goals), I noticed after a week or so that I wasn&apost quite as hungry at night. I was able to actually tell whether I really wanted food, needed some water, or simply felt bored (something I solved before by having a glass of vino in one hand and my remote tuning into The Bachelor in the other). Researchers have figured out why: One study found that women consume approximately 300 extra calories per day when they decide to indulge in a "moderate" amount of alcohol, and another found that when women had the equivalent of about two drinks, they ate 30 percent more food. Even a mild intoxication (so, feeling a slight buzz after that second glass) increased the brain&aposs activity in the hypothalamus, making the women more sensitive to the smell of food and more likely to chow down. In other words, choosing to cozy up with a cup of decaf tea was better for my waistline, as it was easier to say no when my husband made a bowl of popcorn that I didn&apost really want. (Related: 5 Healthy Eating Habits That Won&apost Suck the Fun Out of Every Meal)
My liver liked me again.
I know, I know, this one seems pretty obvious. But since my job has me reading the latest studies day in and day out, it was interesting to find a new report showing that those who break up with booze, even for a short period, see immediate health benefits. Arguably the most important is how quickly your liver bounces back. The staff at the British magazine New Scientist made themselves guinea pigs for five weeks, and a liver specialist at the Institute for Liver and Digestive Health at University College London found that liver fat, a precursor to liver damage and a potential indicator of obesity, dropped by at least 15 percent (and nearly 20 for some) in those who gave up alcohol. Their blood glucose levels (which can determine your diabetes risk) also decreased by an average of 16 percent. So even though they didn&apost give up their pints for long, their bodies benefited immensely—which means mine likely did too when I quit drinking for a month.
My friendships felt more solid.
One thing I quickly realized: Nearly 100 percent of my social life revolved around food and drinks. Whether it was celebrating a successful month of work at happy hour, embracing heavy pours at book club, or relaxing with a few beers while watching football, there was almost always a drink involved. My month of sobriety made things a bit more complicated because the default options were no longer available. For the most part, though, my friends were totally cool about coming up with alternative plans, or simply letting me hang with my glass of water or club soda without making me feel awkward. (These mocktails will make you feel like you&aposre a part of the party while sober.)
And I admit, this was one of the biggest concerns I had before I quit drinking for a month. Would people find the whole thing annoying? Would they temporarily stop inviting me to hang out? So it helped me realize one thing: I really like my friends, and we didn&apost need alcohol as a crutch to enjoy each other&aposs company. And that&aposs becoming more the norm: A recent survey asked 5,000 drinkers between ages 21 and 35 about their habits and found that nearly half of them would spare the teasing remarks and respect a friend&aposs choice not to drink.
My laziness subsided.
Basically, the "I&aposll do that tomorrow" syndrome that I so frequently suffered from disappeared. While I still vegged on the couch when my brain needed a break, more often than not I found myself motivated to get work done. My husband even noticed, as one Friday night I had enough energy to clean our apartment and run a load of laundry instead of collapsing in bed after work. And because we weren&apost defaulting to dinner and drinks, we went on a fun date that we never made time to do before. (Next up on our date-night list: These heart-pumping activities.)
My skin needed #nofilter.
When I quit drinking for a month, this was the benefit I was most stoked about. I&aposve always struggled with acne and, even though I&aposve been able to manage it fairly well the last few years, flare-ups would still pop up way more often than I&aposd like (read: never—I&aposd like them to occur never). But after just a week of no booze, there was a noticeable difference. My skin was smoother and less dry, and my tone was more even whereas before it was blotchy red. Joshua Zeichner, M.D., a dermatologist in New York City and assistant professor of dermatology at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Manhattan, says alcohol can actually lower your skin&aposs antioxidant levels, increasing your risk of damage from UV light, inflammation, and even premature aging. Once I stopped drinking (and started eating antioxidant-rich foods, like blueberries and artichokes), my levels likely shot back up. "Antioxidants are like fire extinguishers that put out skin inflammation," says Zeichner. "While more research is needed to be sure, the theory is maintaining high antioxidant levels may help suppress inflammation around your follicles that lead to pimples." In other words, hello pretty new skin. (And yes, skin hangovers are a thing.)
I had a lot more money in my savings account.
Drinking is expensive𠅊nd it sneaks up on you. Whether it&aposs a beer at the bar or a bottle of wine to take home, it doesn&apost seem like much. But as each paycheck came in that month, I realized that I had more cash left in my checking account than I normally did after paying bills. My husband, being the supportive guy that he is, didn&apost drink as often as he normally does, either, and our savings really added up. By the time the end of the month rolled around, we had built up a nest egg big enough for us to splurge on a weekend getaway.
Now that I&aposve successfully quit drinking for a month, how do I feel? Good. Really good. A month without alcohol helped me hit a reset button physically, mentally, and even socially. While I won&apost be continuing into a sober February, I do plan to take some of the lessons with me, like checking in before deciding if I actually want a drink and planning fun outings that don&apost revolve around booze.
Heavy drinking leads to early-onset dementia
Research published in The Lancet Public Health indicated that alcohol use disorder is a major risk factor for dementia, especially early-onset dementia.
“The relationships between alcohol use and cognitive health in general, and dementia in particular, are complex,” Michaël Schwarzinger, MD, of the Translational Health Economics Network, France, and colleagues wrote. “Moderate drinking has been consistently associated with detrimental effects on brain structure, and nearly every review describes methodological problems of underlying studies, such as inconsistent measurement of alcohol use or dementia, or both, and insufficient control of potential confounders. By contrast, heavy drinking seems detrimentally related to dementia risk, whatever the dementia type.”
To determine how alcohol use disorders effect dementia risk, especially among those aged younger than 65 years, researchers conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort of hospitalized adults in France discharged with alcohol-related brain damage, vascular dementia or other dementias between 2008 and 2013. Alcohol use disorder was the primary exposure, and dementia was the main outcome. Using the French National Hospital Discharge database, they studied the prevalence of early-onset dementia and determined whether alcohol use disorders or other risk factors were associated with dementia onset.
In total, 1,109,343 adults discharged from hospital in France were diagnosed with dementia and included in the study. Of those, 35,034 cases of dementia were attributable to alcohol-related brain damage, and 52,625 cases had other alcohol use disorders. Among the 57,353 early-onset dementia cases, 22,338 (38.9%) were attributable to alcohol-related brain damage and 10,115 (17.6%) had an additional diagnosis of alcohol use disorders.
Analysis revealed that alcohol use disorders were linked to a threefold increased risk for all types of dementia and “were the strongest modifiable risk factor for dementia onset” (adjusted HR = 3.34 [95% CI, 3.28–3.41] for women HR = 3.36 [95% CI, 3.31–3.41] for men). Alcohol use disorders remained associated with an increased risk for vascular and other dementias even after excluding alcohol-related brain damage, according to the findings. Furthermore, chronic heavy drinking was also linked to all other independent risk factors for dementia onset, including tobacco smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, lower education, depression and hearing loss.
“Our findings suggest that the burden of dementia attributable to alcohol use disorders is much larger than previously thought, suggesting that heavy drinking should be recognized as a major risk factor for all types of dementia,” Schwarzinger said in a press release. “A variety of measures are needed, such as reducing availability, increasing taxation and banning advertising and marketing of alcohol, alongside early detection and treatment of alcohol use disorders.”
Previous research has largely focused on modest alcohol use, and its possible beneficial effect, thus overlooking the effect of heavy alcohol use as a modifiable risk factor for dementia, according to a related comment written by Clive Ballard, MBChB, MRCPsych, and Iain Lang, PhD, of the University of Exeter Medical School, U.K.
“Although many questions remain, several can be answered using existing data, which would provide an opportunity to refine our understanding of the pathways of modifiable risk and develop optimal prevention strategies,” Ballard and Lang wrote. “In our view, this evidence is robust, and we should move forward with clear public health messages about the relationship between both alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption, respectively, and dementia.” – by Savannah Demko